Haemophilia is a rare condition affecting the blood’s capability to clot, and it usually passes through genetics. Comparatively, men tend to diagnose with the condition more than women. When you injure yourself, the substances in blood known as clotting factors develop a clot to stop the bleeding gradually. But people with haemophilia, do not have the clotting factors in their blood and may bleed longer than usual. Majorly people develop the disease in middle or old-aged or young women just gave birth to their child or during the later stage of pregnancy.
The causes include change or mutation of the genes that provide instructions for clotting factor protein to form a blood clot. The shift in mutation can prevent the clotting factor from its standard process.
Haemophilia symptoms can be both severe and mild, depending on the stage of the clotting factor. The most common symptoms are:
- Bleeding that doesn’t stop
- Nosebleeds that last longer
- Easy bruising skin
- Bleeding inside the joints causes swelling, pain, and tightness
- Bleeding gums
- Blood in stool or urine
- Bleeding after shots (vaccinations)
When to consult a doctor?
- When you are easily bruised, and the bleeding doesn’t stop.
- When you have joint symptoms like tingling, pain, or joint stiffness. Joint turning hot, tender, or swollen.
- When you are pregnant or planning for a baby, you have a family history of haemophilia.
People with haemophilia have a small risk of developing or bleeding inside their skull called brain haemorrhage. Brain haemorrhage symptoms include:
- Stiff neck
- Severe headache
- Vomiting or being sick
- An abrupt change in mental state
- Difficulty in speaking
- Change in vision (double vision)
- Paralysis of all or some face muscles
- Loss of coordination or balance
There is no particular cure, but there are treatments that allow a person with the condition to have a good quality of life. Artificial clotting factors help to prevent and treat prolonged bleeding. If the haemophilia isn’t severe, injections are usually given in response to prolonged bleeding.
Reviewed by – Dr. Priyanka, MBBS MD Microbiology
Page last reviewed: 23 JUNE 2022